The implementation of Design-for-Manufacturing (DfM) alongside the use of high quality assembly and inspection equipment minimizes the chance for assembly errors. In spite of this, however, assembly errors do occur and PCBAs must be tested to detect these errors in an effort to achieve PCBAs with zero defects. Modern designs rely on JTAG/boundary-scan for testing which offers access to a device’s pins irrespective of its package and helps to achieve optimal fault coverage.
In production, when devices are programmed as part of the board configuration process, a complete range of different devices and device types must be supported. For efficiency reasons such programming should ideally be undertaken using the same hardware as used for testing.
Various parameters determine the type of test and programming hardware that fits best. Such parameters include performance, form factor, integration possibilities with other test stations already in use, etc.
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Design-for-Test (DfT) rules serve to optimize the test process for detecting assembly errors. Modern designs rely on JTAG boundary-scan for testing. Boundary-scan in a device gives access to its pins irrespective of the device package and allows for a maximum fault coverage. With our Testability analysis you can determine which percentage of a design can be tested with boundary-scan. Our booklet “Board DfT Guidelines” helps you to optimize the boundary-scan testability of your design.
Different tests are developed to achieve the maximum fault coverage. Boundary-scan tests such as interconnect test, pull-up, pull-down resistor tests, memory cluster tests and tests of random logic devices can all be generated automatically with ProVision. With the powerful python language tests can be added for those parts of the circuit for which automatic test generation is not possible, for example sequential circuitry, ADC’s and DAC’s. Whether your design consists of a single board or comprises of multiple boards any configuration can be handled within ProVision. When a set of tests has been generated the fault coverage of this set can be calculated and compared against the testability of the design to see if additional tests are needed. Finally automatic test sequencing makes execution of the tests a simple push the button action. Possibilities to combine the various tests in a single sequence complete the ProVision development environment.
At run-time the test sequence is executed to test the entire board. JTAG Technologies’ run-time solutions may be stand-alone or may be part of your total test solution (JTAG Inside). Production Integration Packages are available for LabVIEW, LabWindows, TestStand, C, C++, C#, .NET, Visual Basic, ATEasy. Also certified packages (Symphony products) are available for in-circuit testers and flying probe testers from Agilent, Teradyne, Digital Test, Seica, Spea, Cobham, Takaya, …
Diagnostics software analyzes the detected faults and reports the cause of the faults and the nets and pins involved. With Visualizer the location of a fault can be highlighted on the layout and schematic diagram making it simple for factory repair technicians to locate the fault on the board.
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Devices are programmed as part of the board configuration process. Available programming solutions differ per device type:
- Flash memories (NOR, NAND, Serial)
- Microcontrollers and DSPs (embedded flash)
- FPGAs, CPLDs
- PMBus devices
Depending on the type of device the programming application files can either be generated automatically or are provided as ready-to-run solutions. The application files for any of these device types can be executed with any JTAG Technologies’ run-time package, either stand-alone or integrated with other (test) systems.
Flash memories can be programmed via the boundary-scan registers of JTAG devices connected to the flash’s address-, data-, and control lines. In a boundary-scan flash programming application the flash lines are controlled via the boundary-scan registers to deliver data and commands to the flash memory. The flash programming application files can automatically be generated with ProVision that comes with an extensive flash library. Alternatively it is possible to use the debug logic of a microprocessor to program flash memories connected to the processor bus.
Microcontrollers and DSPs (embedded flash)
Programming the embedded flash of a microcontroller requires a dedicated solution for that controller. JTAG Technologies offers programming solutions for an extensive range of microcontrollers as listed in . These solutions are provided as Ready-to-Run (R2R) programming application files for direct execution with a JTAG Technologies’ run-time package.
FPGAs and CPLDs
Different data formats are used for in-system programming of FPGAs and CPLDs such as SVF, JAM, STAPL and ISC IEEE 1532. PLD programming applications using the ISC IEEE 1532 format can be generated automatically with ProVision. SVF, JAM and STAPL files can directly be executed with a JTAG Technologies’ run-time package.
Power Management devices using the PMBus protocol can be programmed via the boundary-scan register of a connected device. In a boundary-scan PMBus programming application a boundary-scan device acts as PMBus master to deliver data and commands to the PMBus device. The programming application files can automatically be generated with ProVision.
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To test a board and program devices on it you need the following hardware:
- A JTAG controller connecting your PC or workstation with the JTAG interface on the board.
- I/O modules for boundary-scan access to I/O connectors and special test points on the board.
To reliably execute your test and programming applications you can choose from a range of different controllers with different performance capabilities and form factor. The high speed JT 37×7 DataBlaster is the top model. It has a scalable performance and is available in a large variety of different form factors. The JT 5705 mixed signal controller supports control and measurement of analog signals in combination with boundary-scan. The JT 5705 Explorer controller with a USB interface is the ideal choice when a maximum performance is not the main driving factor.
Choose auxiliary I/O modules to add scan test and analog measurement coverage into portions of your design that lack boundary-scan access. Select digital I/O scan (DIOS) modules, mixed I/O scan (MIOS) modules, or Socket Test Modules (STM) to conveniently test sockets, connectors and sensors.
You can have your boundary-scan controllers and I/O modules as separate instruments, or you may combine them in a single instrument. The Rack- Mountable Instrument (RMIc) for example is a self-contained unit with one or more boundary-scan controllers and I/O modules of your choice, perfect for installation in a 19-inch test rack or in a benchtop set-up. The JT 5705 effectively combines a 2 TAP controller and mixed-signal IO (MIOS) channels, making it virtually a self-contained ATE.
Integration with other systems
The high-speed DataBlaster controllers are available in all of the popular formats (PCI, PCIe, PXI, PXIe, USB, Ethernet, Firewire) for stand-alone use as well as for seamless integration with your Functional Test System. For a seamless integration with your In-Circuit Tester or Flying Probe Tester dedicated form factors matching directly with the format of your tester are also available.
If you combine your JTAG controller with your In-Circuit Tester, Flying Probe Tester, or your Functional Test System you can use the test and measurement hardware of that system instead of auxiliary I/O modules to measure the I/O connectors and test points in combination with boundary-scan.
We’ve even got a product for remote operation over any distance, JTAG TapCommunicator. TapCommunicator is a truly unique product that can overcome problems caused by lack of target accessibility. By harnessing the native communications protocol of the target (e.g. E-net, Bluetooth, SpaceWire etc.) boundary-scan tests and programming applications can be applied over virtually any distance.
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