Almost 30 years ago, the change in device packaging from throughhole to surface-mount prompted a group of production test engineers to consider the impact of these parts on the testing of their assemblies. They called
themselves the Joint European Test Action Group (JETAG) and were made up of representatives from Philips, BT, GEC, Siemans, Plessey, and others. In most cases up to the mid-1980s, tests were accomplished by in-circuit testers
(ICTs) for individual component and PCB testing, or function testers that mimic the environment of the UUT to send and receive stimulus and response signals. With advent of SMT and higher levels of integration, test access for ICTs
was greatly diminished. In addition, due to the higher integration levels, functional test became a more arduous process.
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